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ULRN 4690- Senior Seminar: Reflection, Assessment, and Writing  

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Scholarly Articles and Peer Review

Scholarly Articles- Articles written by experts that can either be primary research or a review of the literature on a particular subject.

Peer Reviewed Articles-  Articles reviewed by experts/ scholars in the field that meet specific criteria with regards to a specific publication or discipline.

Research-Based Practice

Intervention- Action performed to direct or influence behavior. (ERIC Thesaurus Scope Note)

Action Research- Research designed to yield practical results that are immediately applicable to a specific situation or problem. (ERIC Thesaurus Scope Note)

Research-Based Practice- Identify a specific problem and use academic literature (research) to inform a solution.

Empirical Research-  Research based on observation or experience.



    Research Articles

    Basic components of a research article:


    Title: is a concise description of the research report. It should convey appropriate information about the study or studies presented in the report.

    Abstract: provides a brief but comprehensive summary of the research.

    Introduction: sets the research in a context (it provides the "big picture"), provides a review of related research, and develops the hypotheses for the research.  The introduction describes the problem, develops the theoretical and empirical background for the research questions, and elaborates a rationale for all parts of the study.

    Method (or methodology): is a description of how the research was conducted, including who the participants were, the design of the study, what the participants did, and what measures were used. The detail is important so the reader can determine the appropriateness of the method for answering the scientific questions. It is also important for another researcher to be able to replicate the study. This section reads a lot like a recipe.

    Results: describes the outcomes of the measures of the study. This section contains the summaries and analyses of the measures obtained in the study. This is where the "answers" to the research questions will be found.

    Discussion: contains the interpretations and implications of the study. There may be more that one study in the report; in this case, there are usually separate Method and Results sections for each study followed by a General Discussion that ties all the research together.

    References: contains information about all the articles and books that were cited in the report. The reference citations are used to support statements made in the article.

    Modified from  @Department of Psychology, Academic Technologies for Learning, and University of Alberta, 1997.
    Retrieved 10/1/06 from 


    Examples of Scholarly Articles



    Qualitative Study

    Quantitative Study

    Literature Review


    Sample groups too small to analyze using statistics




    Produces numerical results/ analyzed statistically

    An article that provides an overview of important research on a particular topic

    Reviews several quantitative studies analyzing them looking for patterns/ trends within data

    Case Study


    May involves experimentation

    Considered scholarly but not primary research/ no new study is conducted

    Uses existing studies



    Survey/ questionnaire



    Usually considered another form of quantitative research

    Focus Groups




    Research Methods


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