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Primary source formats, search strategies, and web sites

Definitions of Primary and Secondary Sources

Primary Sources

Primary sources are the first hand evidence left behind by participants or observers at the time of events. 

"Primary sources originate in the time period that historians are studying.  They vary a great deal. They may include personal memoirs, government documents, transcripts of legal proceedings, oral histories and traditions, archaeological and biological evidence, and visual sources like paintings and photographs. " ( Storey, William Kelleher.  Writing History: A guide for Students. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1999, p.18).

Primary sources provide first-hand testimony or direct evidence concerning a topic under investigation. They are created by witnesses or recorders who experienced the events or conditions being documented. Often these sources are created at the time when the events or conditions are occurring, but primary sources can also include autobiographies, memoirs, and oral histories recorded later. Primary sources are characterized by their content, regardless of whether they are available in original format, in microfilm/microfiche, in digital format, or in published format. (Primary Sources at Yale:

Secondary Sources  

"Secondary works reflect on earlier times. Typically, they are books and articles by writers who are interpreting the events and primary sources that you are studying. Secondary works vary a great deal, from books by professional scholars to journalistic accounts.  Evaluate each secondary work on its own merits, particularly on how well it uses primary sources as evidence." (Storey, William Kelleher. Writing History: A guide for Students. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1999, p.18-19).


Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources




Printed& Published

  • Autobiographies, memoirs, personal narratives
  • Accounts, eyewitnesses
  • Conference proceedings
  • Diaries, letters, correspondences, journals
  • Government documents—laws, cases, treaties
  • Interviews, oral histories, speeches
  • Literature—novel/fictions, poems
  • Records, transcripts
  • Books, such as biographies (not an autobiography), textbooks, Encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks
  • Articles, such as literature reviews, commentaries, research articles in all subject disciplines
  • Criticism of works of literature, art and music

Manuscripts & Archival Material

  • Diaries, letters, correspondences, journals
  • Interviews, oral histories, speeches
  • Artifacts—manufactured items, clothing, furniture,             tools, buildings
  • Organization records

Visual Materials

  • Cartoons, postcards, posters
  • Films, music
  • Interviews, oral histories, speeches
  • Maps/atlases
  • Photographs


  • First-hand newspaper and magazine accounts of events


  • Statistics, surveys, opinion polls
  • Scientific data

Internet Sources

  • Emails, text messages, tweets
  • Web pages of primary source materials

Format of Primary Sources




Books and monographs


A monograph is "a systematic and complete treatise on a particular subject" (ALA glossary of library and information science, Chicago: ALA, 1983, p.48), in one or many volumes, complete at the time of publication or published with the intention of being completed at some future date.



A serial is a publication that is usually published at regular, established intervals, with the intention of continuing publication indefinitely. Magazines and newspapers -- often offer the most immediate published accounts of and reactions to historical events. The important thing is to distinguish between material written at the time of an event as a kind of report, and material written much later, as historical analysis.

Government documents

Government documents are publications issued by federal, state, municipal and international governments. 

Records of organizations and individuals

The minutes, reports, correspondence, etc. of an organization or agency serve as an ongoing record of the activity and thinking of that organization or agency.  There are many kinds of records, such as: births, deaths, marriages certificates; permits and licenses issued; census data; etc. 


Documents created by individuals, not as employees or representatives of an organization, are called manuscripts or personal papers. These documents can be either hand-written or typed, varying in length from a single note or letter to a full-length book. Include among other things: personal papers, memoirs, autobiographies, correspondence, diaries, letters, artificial collections, etc.


Archival documents may be either personal papers or institutional archives. They could include bulletins, case files, contracts, correspondence, diaries, journals, ledgers, memoirs, memorandums, minutes, photographs, reports, rosters, and videorecordings. 

Original art

Single paintings, drawings, watercolors, sculpture, architectural drawings, and plans,




Graphic art, etchings, engravings, lithographs, woodcuts, mezzotints, posters, trade cards, artists' prints, and computer-generated graphics


Pictures, picture negatives

Physical objects

Buildings, furniture, tools, appliances, household items, clothing, etc. 

Digital collections

Digital collections may have been transferred from their original format to a machine-readable form or, may exist only as electronic resources. Data may be stored on disk, computer tape, CD-ROM or from Internet sites.

Primary Source Search Strategies

Familiarizing Yourself with Background Information

  • Reference Source
    A first step you need to do to find primary materials is to familiarize yourself with the background information on your topic. Library reference collection is a great place to get started. These reference materials will give you a good overview of the topic, will outline the basic historical context, and will help you identify key issues, events, participants, dates, and even keywords needed for you to plan a more informed and efficient search.

    Examples of Reference Sources:
    • Specialized encyclopedias
      • Encyclopedia of of the American Civil War : a political, social, and military history
      • Latin America, history and culture : an encyclopedia for students
      • Encyclopedia of Asian History
    • Chronolgies
      • Chronology of World Hisotry: a Calendar of Principal Events from 3000 BC to AD 1976
      • The Timetables of History: a Horizontal Linkage of People and Events
    • Factbooks
      • Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates
    • Biographical dictionaries and encyclopedias
      • Dictionary of World Biography
      • Current Biography (1940-present)
    • Specialized bibliographies and guides to research
      • Bibliographies in American History: Guide to Materials for Research
      • Sources of Information for Historical Research
      • A Reference Guide to Latin American history
  • Textbooks and Journal Articles
    Textbooks and journal articles (especially those with extensive bibliographies) and other secondary sources can provide you background informaiton and clues about the event, participants involved, as well as source of materials useful for your research.

    To search for journal articles, use appropriate databases listed in the database page from the Library Web (

    For general history topics, you can use the following online databases to find articles:
    • America: History & Life
    • Historical Abstracts
    • JSTOR
    • Project Muse
    • Humanities Abstracts
    • Academic Search Premier

Where to Find?
Primary sources may be in their original format or may have been reproduced at a later date in a different format. Library Catalogs, electronic databases, and the Web are tools can be used to find primary sources.

What to Find
OneSearch To find primary sources in the libraries, EXECPT ARTICLES, use OneSearch Advanced Search. Uisng OneSearch, you can find primary source materials such as, addresses, correspondences, diaries, documents, eyewitnesses, interviews, maps, music scores, periodicals, personal narratives, photographs, speeches, and sound recording.      
Online Databases

Some primary sources are digitized in subscription databases:


For primary sources on the Web, see the selective list of Primary Sources on the Web or search the Web using Google.  For important advice on finding and evaluating primary sources on the Web, see Using Primary Sources on the Web from the History Section of the Reference and User Services Association, a division of the American Library Association.

Types of Primary Source

Where to Search

Printed & Published

Addresses, autobiographies, correspondences, diaries, documents, evidence, events, eyewitnesses, interviews, letters, memoirs, oral history, personal narratives, speeches, transcripts, cartoons, posters, etc.

Use Library Catalog Advanced Search.

Search by topic (in most cases, names of events) and add the appropriate type of primary source. Use AND to link the topic and the source type.


material type + keyword(s) of topic

  • diaries and dust bowl
  • personal narratives and Korean War
  • interviews and japanese americans
Newspaper articles, advertisements, cartoons etc. from the time period you're researching

For newspaper articles or other types of materials on newspapers:

Search electronic newspaper databases such as, Historical Los Angeles Times, Historical New York Times,  Newsstand, London Times Digital Archive (1785-1985)Current Digist of the Russian Press

Magazine articles from the time period you are researching

For magazine articles or other type of materials in magazines:

Use an article database, such as Readers Guide Retro (1890-1982) to locate either full text articles or citations (title, author, name of the magazine, date, volume, page number) of the relevant articles.

If you have the citation already, use Journal Name Search to determine whether the magazine is available at CSULA Library.

Government Documents

Search OneSearch Advanced Search using Subject/Keyword and limit Collection Type to Government Documents. For complete records of government agencies, go to Government Information Resources & Services page at For Congressional publication, go to Congressional Publications database.


Consult one of the following printed indexes in the library:

  • Fiction Catalog   Z5916 .W74
  • Short Story Index   PN6014 S56b
  • Play Index   Z5781.P53
Primary Sources on the Web

Finding Primary Sources on the web is easy, but the key is how you are going to evaluate the quality of the sources. 

  • For important advice on finding and evaluating primary sources on the Web, see Evaluating Primary Sources  from the History Section of the Reference and User Services Association, a division of the American Library Association.
Audio/Video Materials

Search the OneSearch Advanced Search using Subject/Keyword and limit Material Type to Audio/Visual.

The library have subscriptions to streaming video and audio.  You can check the following media databases:

Materials in other libraries

Multi-Search, or Open WorldCat provides catalog access to 110+ million holdings worldwide. Includes catalog records for books, journals, films, sound recordings, videos, etc. It is a good tool for you to find books in your local libraries or other libraries. Since many primary source materials are rare books hosted in library archives or special collections, these items may not be borrowed through the interlibrary loan service. Open WorldCat helps you identify which library has a particular item, so you can plan to make a trip to a local library to use the item.



he American Presidency Project
This project contains a searchable database of tens of thousands of documents from U.S. presidents from 1789 to the present. It covers inaugural addresses, press briefings, signing statements, and debates. Also features data on topics such as popularity and number of public appearances, election results back to 1828, and an archive of audio and video clips.

Avalon Project at the Yale Law School: Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy
The project contains digital documents relevant to the fields of Law, History, Economics, Politics, Diplomacy and Government from pre-18th Century to current.

Chronicling America from the Library of Congress and National Endowment for the Humanities
Digitized newspapers from all 50 states for 1789-1925.

Digital History
Provides learning and teaching resources from online textbook, primary sources, ethnic voices to special topics and reference materials on all periods of United States History.

The Digital Public Library of America
"The DPLA offers a single point of access to millions of items—photographs, manuscripts, books, sounds, moving images, and more—from libraries, archives, and museums around the United States. Users can browse and search the DPLA’s collections by timeline, map, format, and topic."

Emma Goldman Papers
Emma Goldman (1869–1940) stands as a major figure in the history of American radicalism and feminism. An influential and well-known anarchist of her day, Goldman was an early advocate of free speech, birth control, women's equality and independence, and union organization. The Emma Goldman papers feature over 300 letters, primarily written by Emma Goldman, and other anarchists, activists, and thinkers are represented as authors as well, including Alexander Berkman, Eugene Debs, Harry Kelly, Alexander Shapiro, and the Socialist Party of New England.

Harvard Open Collections
The Open Collections provide online access to historical resources from Harvard's renowned libraries, archives, and museums. OCP's highly specialized “open collections” are developed through careful collaborations among Harvard's distinguished faculty, librarians, and curators. Three open collections have been launched since 2004: Women Working, 1800-1930, Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930, and Contagion: Historical Views of Diseases and Epidemics. Two additional collections are under development now: the Islamic Heritage Project, and Organizing Our World: Sponsored Exploration and Scientific Discovery in the Modern Age.

Internet Sites with Primary Sources for U.S. History
A collection of pages that include primary sources for the study of U.S. history from Bowling Green State University.

Making of America
Making of America (MOA) is a digital library of primary sources in American social history from the antebellum period through reconstruction. The collection is particularly strong in the subject areas of education, psychology, American history, sociology, religion, and science and technology. The collection currently contains approximately 8,500 books and 50,000 journal articles with 19th century imprints. The project represents a major collaborative endeavor in preservation and electronic access to historical texts.

National Archives and Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is the nation's record keeper. The agency keeps documents and materials created in the course of business conducted by the United States Federal government.

National Security Archive 
The National Security Archive combines a unique range of functions: investigative journalism center, research institute on international affairs, library and archive of declassified U.S. documents.

Nineteenth Century Documents Project
When completed this collection will include accurate transcriptions of many important and representative primary texts from nineteenth century American history, with special emphasis on those sources that shed light on sectional conflict and transformations in regional identity. 

Project Gutenberg
The Project contains free eBooks or etexts. There are more than 10.000 eBooks in the present collection. Most of these eBooks are older literary works that are in the public domain in the United States. All may be freely downloaded and read, and redistributed for non-commercial use.

U.S. Founding Documents
A collection of federalists' essays.


Asia for Educators -- Columbia University
Selected transcriptions, facsimiles, translations from Western Europe.

EyeWitness to History
History Through the Eyes of Those who Lived it. Eyewitness accounts organized by date starting with Ancient Greece.

German Propoganda Archive
Propaganda was central to Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic. The Web site includes both propaganda itself and material produced for the guidance of propagandists.

The Great Hunger Archive, An Gorta Mor
A joint project of the Ireland Studies Program at Quinnipiac University in Connecticut and Kerry County Library, Ireland, to provide a comprehensive coverage or listing of archival material relating to the famine in Ireland in the 1840s.

Hanover Historical Texts Project
A working-in-progress project covers documents from ancient Greece to the 20th Century.

Internet History Sourcebook
The  Internet History Sourcebooks Project is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented for educational use. It covers ancient, medieval, and modern time periods and includes the following regions and topics: African, East Asian, Global, Indian, Jewish, Islamic, Lesbian/Gay, Science, and Women.   

Middle East Peace Process Documents
It covers Israel and Palestine, Middle East historical and peace process source documents.

The Nanking Massacre Project -- Yale University
A Digital Archive of Documents & Photographs from American Missionaries Who Witnessed the Rape of Nanking. 

Perseus Digital Library
Digital library of resources for the study of the ancient world. Originally begun with coverage of the Archaic and Classical Greek world, has now expanded to Latin text and tools, Renaissance materials, and Papyri. Contains hundreds of texts by the major ancient authors and lexica and morphological databases and catalog entries for over 2,800 vases, sculptures, coins, buildings, and sites, including over 13,000 photographs of such objects.

Slave Voyages (The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database)
The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database has information on almost 35,000 slaving vogages that forcibly embarked over 10 million Africans for transport to the Americas between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. It offers researchers, students and the general public a chance to rediscover the reality of one of the largest forced movements of peoples in world history.

United Nations Treaty Collection
A collection of treaties and international agreements registered or filed and recorded with and published by the Secretariat since 1946.

Historical Newspapers

ICON: International Coliation on Newspapers
This page provides links to past, present, and prospective digitization projects of historic newspapers. Only those newspapers without the dollar icon are for free access.

ICON Database of International Newspapers
The ICON Database of International Newspapers is a freely accessible electronic resource intended to provide reliable information on newspapers published outside of the United States. It includes bibliographic descriptions of titles as well as specific information on institutions’ holdings of the same. The database serves as a central locus for information on international newspaper collections available in North American libraries and in selected libraries outside North America, providing a tool for resource discovery, access, and collection management. 

Legal Documents

Documents from the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention, 1774-1789
The Continental Congress Broadside Collection (253 titles) and the Constitutional Convention Broadside Collection (21 titles) contain 274 documents relating to the work of Congress and the drafting and ratification of the Constitution. Items include extracts of the journals of Congress, resolutions, proclamations, committee reports, treaties, and early printed versions of the United States Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. Most broadsides are one page in length; others range from 1 to 28 pages. A number of these items contain manuscript annotations not recorded elsewhere that offer insight into the delicate process of creating consensus. In many cases, multiple copies bearing manuscript annotations are available to compare and contrast.

FedWorld/FLITE U.S. Supreme Court Decisions
Full text of Supreme Court Decisions issued between 1937 and 1975.

Founders' Constitution
A collection of thoughts, opinions, and arguments of the Founders

Landmark Supreme Court Cases
It covers landmark Supreme Court cases including a full range of resources and activities to support the teaching and learning of landmark Supreme Court cases.

Oral History & Speeches

American Rhetoric: Online Speech Bank
THE ONLINE SPEECH BANK is an index to and growing database of 5000+ full text, audio and video (streaming) versions of public speeches, sermons, legal proceedings, lectures, debates, interviews, other recorded media events, and more.

Historical Voices
A fully searchable database of spoken word collections spanning the 20th century.

History Channel: Speeches
A collection of speeches is drawn from the most famous broadcasts and recordings of the twentieth century.

Talking History
A collection of audio documentaries, speeches, debates, oral histories, conference sessions, commentaries, archival audio sources, and other aural history resources as is available anywhere.

Public Records & Government Documents

NARA 100 Milestone Documents
A list of 100 milestone documents, compiled by the National Archives and Records Administration, and drawn primarily from its nationwide holdings. The documents chronicle United States history from 1776 to 1965.

Core Documents of U.S Democracy
A core group of current and historical Government publications define our democratic society.

National Archives and Records Administration
Find holdings by federal government organization, media, location, and topics.

United States Historical Census Data
The data presented here describe the people and the economy of the US for each state and county from 1790 to 1960.

U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates 1774-1873
A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation consists of a linked set of published congressional records of the United States of America from the Continental Congress through the 43rd Congress, 1774-1875.

Visual Materials

Ad Access Database (advertisements)
The Ad*Access project consists of five main subject categories: Beauty and Hygiene, Radio, Television, Transportation, and World War II from 1911 to 1957.

America from the Great Depression to World War II
55,000 black and white (more coming) and 1600 color photographs from the Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information collection have been digitized. Includes scenes of rural and small-town life, migrant labor, the effects of the Great Depression, and mobilization for World War II.  Part of the American Memory series from Library of Congress.

America's First Look into the Camera
Subtitled Daguerreotype Portraits and Views, 1839 - 1864, this site is a searchable and browsable collection of more than 650 photographs taken between 1839 and 1864. The majority are portraits taken by the Mathew Brady studio. There are also photographic views of buildings and monuments in the Washington-Baltimore area and street scenes in Philadelphia. Part of American Memory from the Library of Congress. 

America in Caricature 1765-1865
The caricatures depict times of turbulence in American history and range in date from the Revolutionary War to the War of 1812 and to the presidential elections of 1860 and 1864.

American Landscape and Architectural Design, 1850-1920

This searchable or browsable "collection of approximately 2800 lantern slides represents an historical view of American buildings and landscapes built during the period 1850-1920." It includes the work of Frederick Law Olmstead, designer of New York's Central Park. It also contains "views of cities, specific buildings, parks, estates and gardens, including a complete history of Boston's Park System." There are images of plans, maps, and models. From the Library of Congress' American Memory Project.

American Posters of World War I
American Posters of World War One from the collection of Roger N. Mohovich

Baldy Editorial Cartoon Database: 1946-82, 1997
A digital database with approximately 2,500 cartoons from the collection.

By the People, For the People
Subtitled Posters from the WPA, 1936-1943, this searchable site contains over 900 posters from Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. Search by keyword or browse by subject or creator. Full descriptive information is provided. Created in silk-screen, lithograph, and woodcut mediums, they were "designed to publicize health and safety programs; cultural programs including art exhibitions, theatrical, and musical performances; travel and tourism; educational programs; and community activities in seventeen states and the District of Columbia."  From the Library of Congress' American Memory Project.

By Popular Demand (Presidential portraits)
A set of 156 portraits of presidents and first ladies

Emergence of Advertising in America
The Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850 - 1920 (EAA) presents over 9,000 images, with database information, relating to the early history of advertising in the United States. The materials, drawn from the Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library at Duke University, provide a significant and informative perspective on the early evolution of this most ubiquitous feature of modern American business and culture.

Internet Movie Database
most comprehensive movie database on or off the Internet. It covers over 250,000 movies,  video, TV movies and TV shows, 500,000 actors, and 50,000 directors. Information includes filmographies for all professions in the industry; plot summaries; character names; movie ratings; running times; trivia; quotes etc. You can find a list of historical movies by using Browse--Facts & Trivia--Titles by year

Labor History Cartoons 
Fred Wright was an American labor cartoonist and activist.  From 1939 until his death in 1984, Wright created thousands of cartoons reflecting the politics and labor issues of the day, which were featured in newspapers, union publications, and overseas union activism. 

LIFE Photo Archive Hosted by Google
Search millions of photographs from the LIFE photo archive, stretching from the 1750s to today.

National Museum of American History (Smithsonian)
The National Museum of American History collects artifacts of all kinds—from gowns to locomotives—to preserve for the American people an enduring record of their past. The Museum has more than 3 million artifacts in its collection. 

New York Public Library Digital Library
A collection of over 337,000 images from primary sources and printed rarities including illuminated manuscripts, historical maps, vintage posters, rare prints, photographs, illustrated books, and printed ephemera.

New York Public Library Online Exhibition
Web sites created by NYPL based on some of its physical exhibitions presented at its research centers, as well as a number of web-only presentations based on its collections.

New York Public Library Public Domain Collection
The collection contains 180,000 of digitized items in the NYPL's Digital Collection. 

OAlster (Off campus users require NIS login) 
OAIster is a union catalog of digital records with more than 19 million items from more than 1,000 contributors. Contains digital resources from open archive collections. Records contain a digital object link allowing users access to the object in a single click. Update quarterly.

Online Archive of California
The Online Archive of California (OAC) provides free public access to detailed descriptions of primary resource collections maintained by more than 150 contributing institutions including libraries, special collections, archives, historical societies, and museums throughout California and collections maintained by the 10 University of California (UC) campuses.
A collection of searchable political cartoons.

Slave Voyages (The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database)
The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database has information on almost 35,000 slaving vogages that forcibly embarked over 10 million Africans for transport to the Americas between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. It offers researchers, students and the general public a chance to rediscover the reality of one of the largest forced movements of peoples in world history.

The Theatre & Performance Collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum
The V&A is the world’s leading museum of art and design, housing a permanent collection of over 2.3 million objects that span over 5,000 years of human creativity. The Museum holds many of the UK's national collections and houses some of the greatest resources for the study of architecture, furniture, fashion, textiles, photography, sculpture, painting, jewellery, glass, ceramics, book arts, Asian art and design, theatre and performance.

They Drew Fire: Combat Artists of World War II
A collection of more than 12,000 pieces of artwork by combat artists during World War II.

World War II in Color
A collection of photos and images of World War II in color.

Historical Maps

American Memory Maps Collection
An American map collection 1500-2004

David Ramsey Historical Map Collection
The historical map collection has over 22,000 maps and images online. The collection focuses on rare 18th and 19th century North American and South American maps and other cartographic materials. Historic maps of the World, Europe, Asia, and Africa are also represented.

Historical Atlas of the 20th Century

Sanborn Maps
"The Sanborn map collection consists of a uniform series of large-scale maps, dating from 1867 to the present and depicting the commercial, industrial, and residential sections of some twelve thousand cities and towns in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
The maps were designed to assist fire insurance agents in determining the degree of hazard associated with a particular property and therefore show the size, shape, and construction of dwellings, commercial buildings, and factories as well as fire walls, locations of windows and doors, sprinkler systems, and types of roofs. The maps also indicate widths and names of streets, property boundaries, building use, and house and block numbers. They show the locations of water mains, giving their dimensions, and of fire alarm boxes and hydrants."

University of Texas Historical Maps

Historical Music

Historic American Sheet Music 1850-1920
The Historic American Sheet Music collection presents 3,042 pieces of sheet music drawn from the Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library at Duke University, which holds an important, representative, and comprehensive collection of nineteenth and early twentieth century American sheet music. This selection presents a significant perspective on American history and culture through a variety of music types including bel canto, minstrel songs, protest songs, sentimental songs, patriotic and political songs, plantation songs, spirituals, dance music, songs from vaudeville and musicals, "Tin pan alley" songs, and songs from World War I.

Historic American Sheet Music Project
Digitized images of over 3000 pieces of American sheet music from 1850 to 1920 are presented, along with their full-color cover art and advertisements, in this searchable index. Search for specific criteria such as subject or date, or browse by cover. From The Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library at Duke University.

Events Specific Primary Source Web Sites

American Slave Narratives: An Online Anthology
A narrative collection of over 2,300 former slaves from across the American South.

Campaign Literature Archive - A Century of Los Angeles Election
The UCLA Online Campaign Literature Archive presents a subset of the materials in the complete Campaign Literature Collection hosted in the UCLA Library. It contains copies of all archived websites plus scanned images of selected print materials. Currently, this includes all elections from 1908 to 1939, and some materials from 1940 and 2000.

Civil War Women--Primary Sources
This site contains diaries, letters, documents, photographs of women during Civil War.

Cold War International History Project

COLLAGE: Collections Online: A Digital of American Immigration and Ethnic History

From the Immigration History Research Center at University of Minnesota, a large searchable collection of digitized images on a variety of topics.

Ellis Island Database Search
A searchable database for Ellis Island passengers arrival records.

Eyewitness to Labor History
An online exhibit of labor history

Gulf War: An Oral History
From tariq aziz to norman schwarzkopf, from colin powell to margaret thatcher, twenty top decision makers, military commanders, Iiraqis and analysts examine the war.
It also contains firsthand accounts of soldiers and pilots in the battlefield who were captured by the Iraqis and interrogated.

Japanese American Relocation Digital Archive
Over 10,000 images, including photographic prints, negatives, drawings, and watercolor paintings, can be searched and browsed.

Kappler's Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties
A list of laws and treaties pertaining to Indian Affairs.

Labor History Web Links on Librarians' Internet Index
A selected list of United States labor history by librarians

Labor History Web Links
Developed for Labor and Working Class History Association by Rosemary Feurer, Northern Illinois University

Labor Archives in the United States and Canada (Directory)
This directory updates the work carried out almost ten years ago by the staff at the Wagner Labor Archives in New York City. A survey then conducted identified "archivists, librarians, and labor union staff who are collecting paper; audio-visual materials, and artifacts that document the history of the trade union movement in the United States." This directory includes repositories with partial holdings relating to labor and workers, as well as repositories whose whole holdings pertain to labor.

New Deal Network
The Web site contains over 900 articles, speeches, letters and other texts, organized by subject, date and author. It also hosts over 5000 Great Depression era images from the National Archives, the FDR Library and many other sources.

Private Art
A collection of WWII Letters to and from the home front

The Valley of the Shadow
The Valley Project details life in two American communities, one Northern and one Southern, from the time of John Brown's Raid through the era of Reconstruction. In this digital archive you may explore thousands of original letters and diaries, newspapers and speeches, census and church records, left by men and women in Augusta County, Virginia, and Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Giving voice to hundreds of individual people, the Valley Project tells forgotten stories of life during the era of the Civil War.

Veterans' History Project
A searchable database of 1,500 veteran history collections.

War Stories
Journalists discuss what they have seen and heard while covering conflicts.

Women and Social Movement in the United States, 1600-2000
Organized around 52 document projects with over 1,250 primary documents, the Women and Social Movements website offers new ways for students, teachers, and scholars to study American History.

Women History on Librarians' Internet Index;search=women%20history%20;searchtype=keywords
A selected list of women history by librarians

Women Working 1800-1930 (Harvard University Library)
The Open Collections Program focuses on women's role in the United States economy and provides access to digitized historical, manuscript, and image resources selected from Harvard University's library and museum collections. The collection features approximately 500,000 digitized pages and images including: 7,500 pages of manuscripts, 3,500 books and pamphlets, and 1,200 photographs

World War I Trenches on the Web
This site contains information on the people, places, and events that comprised one of the worst calamities of modern history.

John F. Kennedy Memorial Library
California State University, Los Angeles
5151 State University Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90032-8300