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Chicago/Turabian Style


The Chicago Manual of Style includes 2 documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), used by those in literature, history, and the arts, and the Author-Date System, which is similar in content, slightly different in form, and preferred in the social sciences.

In addition to consulting the The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations  (9th ed.). Often called "Turabian" style, it resembles the two patterns of documentation but includes alterations geared to papers written by students.

Full explanations, examples, and quick reference can be found below in the official guide, text, and guides created by other universities:

Online Resources

Print Manuals

Citation Managers

Citation Managers can help you create, gather, store, and organize citations.
Create an account and get started today!

RefWorks is a service provided by the University to current students. The 'Write-N-Cite' tool allows you to create citations in a wide range for styles and the browser add-on to Internet Explorer or Firefox- 'RefGrab-It' allows you to pull information from websites. Learn more in the RefWorks User Guide. 

Zotero is a free and open source program that anyone can use, therefore, you will retain access after graduation. Download Zotero the standalone program that works with Windows, Mac, or Linux systems, and install the browser plug-in for Firefox, Chorme, and Safari. For most databases and websites, citation information can be saved with just a few clicks. When you download the standalone program, an extension for Microsoft Word will automatically be added. The extention will add a tab to Word with features that allow you to  instantly create citations in various formats.

Quotes and Parapharasing

Researching, arguing a position, laying the foundation for scientific experiments, and all other academic pursuits begin with studying the work of others and using this work to inform our own. It is absolutely crucial to give credit to those who's work you use, and this is done using direct quotations and paraphrasing, and always citing your sources. Not to do so would be considered plagiarism. Plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty are treated as extremely serious violations of ethical conduct and may result in suspension or expulsion from the University.

A Quote is the exact wording used by the original author. Example:

  • "The primary reason we sentence individuals to jail or prison is to punish them for the criminal offense(s) they have committed against society." (Bayley 2009)

Paraphrasing, is rewriting another's words or ideas in your own words, often summarizing or synthesizing a larger text, while still giving the original author credit for their ideas. Example:

  • Bayley argues that prison should be thought of as a punishment, and not a deterrent for others not to commit a crime. (2009) 

Bruce Bayley, "Custody vs. Treatment Debate: Deterrence—The Two Great Lies," CorrectionsOne, July 1, 2009.

For more information view these guides on quoting and avoiding plagiarism: 

Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing at Purdue OWL

Quoting and Paraphrasing at The University of Wisconsin

Quoting Materials at

John F. Kennedy Memorial Library
California State University, Los Angeles
5151 State University Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90032-8300