The Chicago Manual of Style includes 2 documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), used by those in literature, history, and the arts, and the Author-Date System, which is similar in content, slightly different in form, and preferred in the social sciences.
In addition to consulting the The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (9th ed.). Often called "Turabian" style, it resembles the two patterns of documentation but includes alterations geared to papers written by students.
Full explanations, examples, and quick reference can be found below in the official guide, text, and guides created by other universities:
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Researching, arguing a position, laying the foundation for scientific experiments, and all other academic pursuits begin with studying the work of others and using this work to inform our own. It is absolutely crucial to give credit to those who's work you use, and this is done using direct quotations and paraphrasing, and always citing your sources. Not to do so would be considered plagiarism. Plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty are treated as extremely serious violations of ethical conduct and may result in suspension or expulsion from the University.
A Quote is the exact wording used by the original author. Example:
Paraphrasing, is rewriting another's words or ideas in your own words, often summarizing or synthesizing a larger text, while still giving the original author credit for their ideas. Example:
Bruce Bayley, "Custody vs. Treatment Debate: Deterrence—The Two Great Lies," CorrectionsOne, July 1, 2009.
For more information view these guides on quoting and avoiding plagiarism:
Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing at Purdue OWL
Quoting and Paraphrasing at The University of Wisconsin
Quoting Materials at Plagiarism.org